### Quantum computing

It is the use of collective quantum state features like superposition and entanglement to execute computations. Quantum computers are electronic devices that do quantum calculations. They are thought to be significantly quicker than traditional computers in solving specific computational tasks like integer factorization. An area of quantum information science is the study of quantum computing. It's expected to grow in the next years as the discipline moves closer to real-world applications in pharmaceuticals, data security, and other fields.

### What is it?

The quantum circuit model, quantum Turing machine, adiabatic quantum computer, one-way quantum computer, and numerous quantum cellular automata are all examples of quantum computers. The quantum circuit, which is based on the quantum bit, or "qubit," which is comparable to the bit in conventional processing, is the most extensively used model. A qubit can exist in either a 1 or a 0 quantum state, or in a superposition of the two. When it is measured, however, it is always either 0 or 1; the likelihood of either occurrence is determined by the quantum state of the qubit just before measurement.

### Diving deep in quantum computing.

The goal of efforts to develop a physical quantum computer is to construct high-quality qubits using technologies such as transmons, ion traps, and topological quantum computers. Depending on the computing paradigm used by the entire quantum computer, such as quantum logic gates, quantum annealing, or adiabatic quantum computation, these qubits may be constructed differently. There are now several substantial roadblocks in the way of building practical quantum computers. Because qubits suffer from quantum decoherence and state integrity, maintaining their quantum states is exceptionally challenging. As a result, quantum computers require error correction.

### Applications

#### Cryptography is a technique for encrypting

The use of quantum computing for attacks against currently in use encryption systems is a significant example. When huge integers are the product of a few prime numbers, integer factorization, which underlies the security of public-key cryptography systems, is thought to be computationally infeasible with a regular computer. A quantum computer, on the other hand, might solve this issue quickly using Shor's technique to identify the factors. Some of the tasks of public-key cryptography might be fulfilled by quantum cryptography. As a result, quantum-based cryptography systems may be safer against quantum hacking than classical systems.

#### Problems with search

Unstructured search, which involves retrieving a marked item from a list of objects in a database, is the most well-known example of a task that can benefit from a polynomial quantum speedup. Grover's approach can solve this problem utilizing database queries that are quadratically less than those required by traditional techniques. The benefit is not only demonstrable but also optimum in this case: Grover's technique has been demonstrated to offer the highest possible chance of discovering the requested element for any number of oracle lookups.